超现实主义电影(surrealist film) 把文学上的超现实主义的创作方法运用于电影创作的电影流派。承袭了这一创作主张的倡导者安德烈-布菜东的原则，强调无理性行为的真实性、梦境的重要意义、不协调的形象对列的情绪力量和对个人快感的执着追求。一度成为二十年代法国先锋派电影的主要倾向，后来又成为美国实验电影和地下电影的重要一翼。在供商业发行的故事片领域，超现实主义不构成独立的流派，它的影响只见于影片的个别镜头或段落。阿杜-基洛的《电影中的超现实主义》是进行这种研究的典型论著。
通常认为，杜拉克的《贝壳和僧侣》是第一部超现实主义影片，但更受到重视的则是路易斯．布努艾尔的《一条安达鲁狗》和《黄金时代》，前者是一个精神困顿的流浪汉的一连串梦境而后者则是对性欲和爱情的一次弗洛伊德主义的分析。性欲和高潮，暴力和渎神，以及怪异幽默，是超现实主义电影用来与传统电影形式抗衡的题材。影片真正的目的是希望用自由的电影形式，来激发观众潜在心底最深处的冲动。布努艾尔曾宣称《一条安达鲁狗》是“向谋杀热情地呼唤”。西方的电影研究家们一致认为，超现实主义的影响在布努埃尔转而拍摄故事片后仍不时在他的作品中隐现·在实验电影和地下电影中，超现实主义倾向的代表人物是美国玛耶-德连和肯尼斯-安格尔·在故事片领域里，西方电影研究家倾向于把对变态心理、潜在的性冲动、无理性行为等的描写归结为超现实主义在故事片中的表现。因此，象希区柯克的一系列影片：《爱德华大夫》(1945年)、《眩晕》 （1958年)、《西北偏北》(1959年)、《精神变态者》(1962年)和《群鸟》 （1963年)，马克斯三兄弟的狂乱喜剧片，以及塞缪尔-富勒、约瑟夫-冯．斯登堡等人的一些影片，都成了阐明超现实主义在故事片中的影响的典型例证。
马丁（Richard Martin）在《时装与超现实主义》一书中对时装与超现实主义联姻的过程有着恰如其份的描述。在1983、1984年间，超现实主义时装获得了全面复兴；1985年，由拉格菲尔德完成了“蛋糕帽”和“安乐棱帽”。今天，超现实主义时装的款式和图案比比皆是。 研究发现，超现实主义画家们最关注的是人体和它的局部。时装也是表现人体，只不过时装遮盖人体多一点而已。作为遮盖人体艺术的时装，设计师们寻找各种方法再现人体的美。圣洛朗推出的金黄胸铠圆满地表达了人体的惊人效果。其实，从心理学角度来看，对女性胸的装饰结果，恰恰强调了装饰里面隐藏的东西。当然，通过某种暗示也能表现人体。1984年卡特巴杰在风衣上绣着一句极富挑逗性的法文：“我没穿裤子”。在超现实主义设计师的眼光里，这也许是给时装下的最确切的定义。虽然，按常理来说未免有点过分。然而，它确实道出了超现实主义时装的内涵。必须承认的是，富有超现实主义意味的时装，色情成份到处可见。我们还发现，超现实主义设计师在相饰上很下功夫。原因是，作为脖子上的戏台--帽子，极易成为人们的视觉中心。
Surrealism (surrealism), to explore the theoretical basis of this faction is the impact of Floyd's psychoanalysis, committed to the discovery of human subconscious mind. Therefore, we should give up the realistic image based on the logical and ordered experience and memory, and present the image world of human's deep psychology. Note: Surrealism can not be confused with super realism, surrealism, also known as the doctrine of photography, is one of the most popular bourgeois art schools in the United States in 70s.
After the first World War in France and the rise of the field of literature and art in the field of traditional culture of the traditional culture of the rebel movement, the impact of other countries in Europe and the United states. Its content is not limited to literature, but also involves painting, music and other arts. It puts forward the problems such as the source of creation, the method of creation, the purpose of creation, and the social problems of the capitalist social system and people's living conditions. The Surrealist claims to be a "spiritual revolution."". The movement was initiated by a group of French youths who participated in the first World War. They saw the absurdity and destruction of the war, and had doubts about the ideals, culture and morality of the core of reason. The old faith lost its charm and needed a new ideal to replace it. Surrealism is their attempt to explore the road.
Super realism paved the way for modern literature. Surrealism as a literary genre, the actual existence of the time is not very long, as a literary trend of thought, as an aesthetic point of view, its impact is far-reaching. The purpose of the Surrealist is to leave the reality, return to the original, deny the role of reason, emphasize people's subconscious or unconscious activities. The French philosopher Bergson's intuitionism of subjective idealism and the spirit of Austria pathologist Freud "subconscious" theory lay a philosophical and theoretical basis of surrealism.
Super realism literary thought, reflects the first World War in Europe after the bourgeois young generation of realistic fear and restless and wild spirit. In the Surrealist group, East Su Bo, writer's Chala, painter Arp, Masson and so on. Some of the writers, such as Louis Aragon and Paul Aruja, who were later turned to the progressive literary front, were influenced by the proletarian revolutionary movement. After the Second World War, the super realism in the United States come into fashion, the emergence of the so-called "new surrealism" genre, an imperialist's propaganda tool.
The literary function of surrealism. In 1921, Britten and co-author of the "magnetic field" Su Bo, surrealism first experimental work, first proposed the unconscious writing and automatic writing problems. But the typical surrealist works produced after 1924, such as the East's novel "dissolved") and "1924 fish" (1928) nadje is representative of surrealism as. In 1926, Eluard published a collection of essays, "the peasants of Paris", the book of poetry, "the city of pain" and "the inside story of life", all of which belong to the works of surrealism in the works of Aragon.
Dada, France has a modern art in the history of the most influential school of surrealism, Dadaism and from this school, but in fact this time makes a clear distinction between the two schools, it is difficult. Because of its evolution process and no clear in the plastic arts. However, if the nature of the dada spirit and surrealism as the same, it is a fallacy. Although the dada became a hotbed of surrealism was born, but many still bear the Surrealist romanticism and symbolism of the nineteenth Century legacy, in addition to absorb new elements. Today, we talk about the era of surrealism, are based on the publication of the declaration of time to distinguish between the works of art can not be produced on the correct description of the age. In theory, the initiator of surrealist art movement is the two writers, Britten and apoilinaire. The word "surrealism" was first used by the poet Apollinaire, a philosophical term originally called "supernatural," which was later used in painting. In 1924, Britten published the first surrealist manifesto, published in 1928, the foundation of an important thesis of "super realism painting" and its thought is to seek the liberation of human imagination. Bleton's definition of surrealism is "surrealism". The doctrine of pure spirit, which attempts to apply this doctrine to express the true thought process in spoken language or in any other way. It is the record of thought, not controlled by reason, and does not depend on any aesthetic or moral prejudice." Bleton added: "I believe that the two states, which are thought to be contradictory on the surface, will be solved in the future. It can be said to be an absolute reality, it can be said to be a kind of surreal." It can be seen from this statement that surrealism is the unity of the pursuit of dreams and reality, and is the scope of the human as the object of expression. Bleton in the article asking people to pay attention to those artists possible relationship and literary surrealism, including Matisse, Teresa, Black and Picasso. In fact, the painter does not accord with the definition of the Britten Surrealism: automatic pure psychology. But Kirico, another painter he admired, was probably the first surrealist painter. Kirico from 1911 to 1915 has been living in Paris, his paintings are appreciated by Apollinaire Apollinaire in 1918, wrote the script "Thierry West" breast dubbed "super realism drama" subtitle, the earliest use of "surrealism" this term, he valued for Kirico is obviously aware of the spirit and heart Kirico painted the kind of transcendent performance.
The greatest revelation to surrealism is the theory of psychoanalysis and the theory of subconscious psychology by Professor Freud, a professor of psychiatry at University of Vienna in Austria. On the whole, surrealism, as an art movement, is closely related to Freud's psychoanalysis. The spirit and thought leader Britten surrealism had medical experience, he read the work of Freud, immediately to the association between psychoanalysis and the unconscious expression of dada. Psychoanalysis focuses on the analysis of dreams, fantasies, and hallucinations, and induces daydreaming as a possible method of artistic creation. According to this research and engaged in a conscious dream world, as opposed to naturalism, not subject to the disposal of instinct and imagination, depicting surreal themes, performance is more real than the real world, more significant than the representation of the real world, the realm of imagination in the dream world.
The painter who cited Arp, Irons, Daly, Miro, Masson, Kirico, Chagall, Magritte, tanki krno, etc.. They Yibuliedun "automatic, unconscious automatic function (Automatisme) and fantasy world of mining for" creation, also by the philosopher Bergson (HBergson) effect in thought for two yuan to break the heart of the universe, the establishment of a unified metaphysics, so they show any dream and imagination a lot of strange, people can not understand the deformation and line. Their creative activities are arranged freely in a world of time and space, and they are not bound by space and time. However, if you use this visual image by explaining the surrealism drawing, but also one of the main style of surrealism painting, namely Daly, Margaret, as the representative of the style of deerwo. This style is characterized by fine detail, creating an illusion and a dream picture through the image and scene that can be identified. It is the source of art Rousseau, Chagall, Seoul, thinking and the nineteenth Century romantic chirico. It attempts to use the definition of Freud to create an image that is not controlled by consciousness and reason.However, the process of painting is actually a rational process which is not the same as that of realistic painting. Therefore, this kind of style is also called naturalism surrealism and classical surrealism. Another surrealist painting is by Milo, Ma song et al as the representative, unconscious of their pursuit of painting process, resulting in pure mental dominance images on the screen, the end result is always full of illusion and a life form abstraction. Therefore, it is also known as organic surrealism or absolute surrealism, chance this tendency and dada and some futurists in connection with the unconscious behavior test.
Since Britten developed in 1924 after the declaration was held in Paris in June 1925 for the first time the surrealist art exhibition, the participants included Picasso, Appleton and Klee et al., they are obviously not the true sense of the surrealist painter, only Ernst with surrealism in his dada collage in the first attempt of the works. In 1926 the Surrealist organized the Surrealist gallery. In 1936 and in the year of 1947, they held important exhibitions in London and Paris. Once the popularity of Europe, although the upsurge of surrealism in 30s after the decline, but the movement and disappeared, and in the second world war still has a certain impact. Because of the great number of painters from Paris to the United States before the two World War, the surrealist painting from Europe to the new world. In addition, its influence to the field of drama, stage decoration, photography, film, architecture, sculpture and other art.
Surrealism is devoted to the exploration of human experience prior level, and strive to break through the realistic logic and realistic view, try to be practical ideas and instinct, the unconscious and dream experiences together, to show a real scene absolute or transcendent. The Surrealist movement, which is full of fantasy and exotic style, has an important influence on the aesthetics of the twentieth Century.
Dada preparation period
Dada: a war during the period of modern literature and art school, also called early surrealism. Strita Chala, French poet.
Originally started in the field of painting, in 1913, Duchamp put a bicycle seat upside down on a stool. Is regarded as the pioneer of dada. In 1919, Duchamp in print Da Finch's "Monalisa" on the Monalisa add a moustache and re named "L.H.O.O.Q" was born, so.
In 1916, a group of intellectuals who did not want to enter the "bloody slaughterhouse" and left Switzerland, a German writer, Bauer, organized a "little hotel" in Zurich. In February 8th, the Romanian check will pull a knife inserted into a bend of, and then referred to in the tip of the page that use "dada" as a genre of the title, Dada, language, meaning "horse". The use of it as the banner of literary and artistic activities, there is no meaning, but also reflects their view of the world: everything has the occasional and unknowable, that is no reason, no meaning.
Chala declaration to the definition of freedom: "dada dada, dada, dada, a convulsive pain howl, all opposites, interwoven contradictions, bizarre and illogical things, this is life". "Let everyone shout: there's a great, destructive, great work to be done. It's clear, mopping up." - nihilism and anarchism. Dada spirit - destroy everything, denying everything, even their own people.
France: Breton, Aragon, Su Bo is known as "the Three Musketeers", in March 1919 to do a "literary magazine" in Paris, the name is a kind of literary irony, its purpose is to oppose all literary tradition. The same year contact dada. 1920, check to pull Paris formed a French dada group, all three people join. In 1922 announced the "abandoned dada".
The first declaration of the period
In 1924, Breton published the first "surrealist Manifesto". Headed by Breton, Aragon, Eluard and Su Bo formed the trend of dada and great in strength and impetus, they have different theories, goals, the more successful works.
In the same year, Paris's No. 15 Nair street, established a permanent establishment "surreal Research Office", put forward to the life itself as raw materials, welcome all the pursuit of innovation, and real life harmony.
In the same year, he also founded the newspaper "surrealist revolution" magazine, in the eyes of the upper class is "the world's most shameless magazine". Published for ten years.
Leaflets, brochures, "dead", ironically just died: "with France and France, some people's servility. Let's bury deceit, tradition, patriotism, opportunism, doubt that day and realism and cowardice as a festival to celebrate."
Gradually turned to the French Communist Party, such as Aragon, the internal split.
In December 1929, Breton "the second surrealist Manifesto", "purification surrealism". Aragon, Aragon in 1930 in the Soviet Union at the second International Congress of the revolutionary writers, not to defend surrealism and lead to Breton's break line.
To participate in the Spanish Civil war.
More than a dozen international surrealist exhibition.
A large number of works come out.
Interrupted by World War ii.
In 1947, Breton called the Paris international surrealist Fair held at the rally.
Expand into the world phenomenon, extend to various fields.
In 1966, Breton died, replaced by Jean Hust, announced the dissolution in 1969.
Beyond the real world, there is a so-called "the other side" of the world, that is, the unconscious or subconscious world. Listen to the call of the poet emphasizes the subconscious, writing dreams, fantasy, what a coincidence, advocate automatic writing, the dream and the moment of subconscious record, achieve "automatic reaction of pure spirit". The pursuit of magic works, strange artistic effects, full of unexpected image metaphor, some works of imagination, rich and novel, but most obscure, the language is lack of logic, normative.
Super realism denies the realism and traditional novels, all hostile moral tradition, that it is the root of mediocrity, hatred, and novels have become the darling of the literature, because it is adapted to the requirements of the readers reflect the logical pursuit of life. It is to break all of this, the pursuit of "pure spirit of the automatic response, trying to respond to this, in oral, written or any other form of the actual function of thinking. It is not subject to any supervision of the mind, and does not take into account any aesthetic or moral consequences, which will be recorded". The Surrealists in cafes, cinemas and other public places to find, collect people's thinking of the original state, and on the basis of creation, its representative is Breton in 1928 he published the novel "fine". After the end of the 20s, the movement split. In 1930, Breton published the second Manifesto of surrealism, reaffirming the principles of movement: the absoluteness of resistance, the thoroughness of disobedience and the destruction of rules and regulations. Then the movement is at a low ebb, almost only one person Bole still persist in exile in the United States during the Second World War, he has not stopped the propaganda. In 1946 Breton had back in France, continue to do the magazine, organized exhibition, broadcast, and set off the Surrealist movement, affecting many countries in Europe, but the momentum is far less than in 20s.
Surrealism existence time is longer, the genre is quite attractive and vitality, many modern theory under its influence and development.
Film (surrealist) to the literary creation of the Surrealist approach used in the film creation of the genre. From this creation advocate Andre serving East principle, emphasize the irrational behavior of the authenticity of the dream and the significance, not coordinated image of the column of personal emotional strength and the pursuit of pleasure. It was the main trend of the French avant-garde film in 20s, and later became an important wing of American experimental films and underground films. In the field of film for commercial release, surrealism does not constitute an independent genre, its impact is only seen in the film's individual lens or paragraph. Adu's in the movie "kilo surrealism" is a typical work in this study.
In 20s, the French avant-garde film who found the movie camera and montage of nature column technique make it become the ideal means of surrealism. This view has always been popular among the anti traditional filmmakers, and has been put into practice. Surrealist films defy narrative.
Generally, the "Dulake" is the first monk shells and surrealist film, but more attention is Lewis. Bunuel's "an Andalusian dog" and "golden age", the former is a series of dreams of a spirit of hardship tramps, while the latter is the analysis of sexual desire and love one Freud doctrine. Sexual violence and profanity, and climax, and weird humor, is a surrealist film used to compete with the traditional form of movie themes. The real purpose of the film is to use the free form of the film, to stimulate the audience's deepest potential heart impulse. Bunuel once declared that "an Andalusian dog" is called "enthusiastically to the murder". The movie western researchers agree that the influence of surrealism in Bunuel turned to the story still in his works in the looming experimental film and underground film, representative of surrealism in the United States - deljan Maya and Kenneth Angell in the film field, Film Studies in the West tend to take on abnormal psychology, the potential sexual impulse, irrational behavior description attributed to the surreal story in the performance. Therefore, a series of films like Hitchcock: "doctor Edward" (1945), "vertigo" (1958), "north by Northwest" (1959), "psychopath" (1962) and "birds" (1963), frantic comedy three brothers Marx, Samuel and Fuller, Joseph von. Some films Sternberg et al, has become a typical example to elucidate the influence of surrealism in the story.
If the realistic color is to play the role of ideographic processing on the basis of real color words, then, using the super realism processing emphasizes the subjective color, but the color of the ideographic function, no longer consider true color processing, surrealism originated from western modern movies. Known as the founder of modern western film Italy famous director Antonioni in his film "red desert", red, yellow and blue are the important expressive color, he put the factory building painted red and yellow, the tree also painted red. Red and yellow in the West symbolizes the turmoil and fear, here the red and yellow of the environment, metaphor of modern industrial civilization is destroying mankind. The yellow smoke from the chimney is poisonous. The heroine Giuliana living room painted blue, suggesting that mental illness - Giuliana see the world is cold and heartless, she cannot outside and family communication, her spiritual world has collapsed. Green is a symbol of the color of life, rarely seen in the film green, suggesting that the modern industrial pollution of the modern world, all life is threatened, and even can not survive. Color of this film is surreal, color is no longer true reproduction of natural scenery, but according to the author's subjective wishes to color as an independent means of expression.
Martin (Richard Martin) process of marriage of fashion and surrealism in "fashion and surrealism" a book with appropriate description. In 1983, 1984 years, surreal fashion won the Renaissance; by 1985, Lagerfeld completed the "cake cap" and "an edge cap". Today, the fashion and style of surrealism. The study found that the Surrealist painters were most concerned about the human body and its parts. Fashion is also the performance of the human body, but only a little more than the human body mask. As a cover for the art of human body fashion, designers are looking for ways to reproduce the beauty of the human body. The golden breastplate round launched Montreal express Laurent amazing effects of human. In fact, from a psychological point of view, the results of the decoration of the female chest, just stressed the decoration inside the hidden things. Of course, the human body can be expressed by some kind of suggestion. In 1984 Carter Baji with a highly provocative coat in French: "I didn't wear pants". In the eyes of surrealist designers, this may be the most accurate definition of fashion. Although, according to common sense is a bit too much. It does, however, suggest the connotation of surrealism. It must be admitted that, in the fashion of surrealism, pornography is everywhere. We have also found that surrealist designers work very hard on the decoration. The reason is that as the neck stage - hat, extremely easy to become the center of people's vision.
Although there are similarities between fashion and surrealism, they are different from surrealism art. The emergence of the surreal style of fashion mainly caters to fashion business as a graphic art. Because through advertising, newspapers, art and photography, the super realism spirit spread. Among them, urged designers and fashion critics also played a key role.
The surreal photography was produced in 1930s, which was deeply influenced by surrealism literature and art thought and surrealism painting. Surrealism today has become history, especially in China, surrealism photography has not produced is dead, even if can appear, but is also the "imitation of surrealism photography" or "pseudo surrealism photography", however, as an important part in the history of photography, or it is necessary to understand.
Surreal photography is very difficult to explain in words, because this kind of work is not real experience records, with common experience of everyone's going to make a comment on the surreal photography is a very difficult thing, only from the syntax and the claim of it in a may be far fetched the understanding of surrealism photography.
Surrealism photography since not to record the real mission, so it works in real nature is not their original intention in the objective world, every body appears as a visual image of the symbol, surrealist photographer these symbols to make the image vocabulary and the sentence "." it is difficult to image the sentence "can be translated into" language sentences ", this sentence often contains a mood, a wisp of poetry, some perceptual and some political meaning, the implied meaning is surreal art charm.
Super realism from Dadaism the pro knowledge: to change the world and eliminate war and disease, let freedom, original love and spontaneous sprout and dream interpretation of eternity, in fact, surrealism in early 1966 with Andel Braden's death and dies, after "surreal" repeatedly abused and misuse, known as the "new super realism" and "Cubism", some really terrible.