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释迦牟尼佛

 释迦牟尼佛(巴利文:Siddhattha Gotama,梵文:Siddhārtha Gautama),意为“释迦族的圣人”;原名乔达摩·悉达多,古印度迦毗罗卫国释迦族人,佛教(世界三大宗教之一)的创始者。成佛后被称为释迦牟尼佛,尊称为佛陀,意思是对宇宙人生真相彻底的了知、大彻大悟的人;民间信徒称呼他为佛祖。

  • 中文名释迦牟尼佛
  • 外文名Siddhattha Gotama
  • 别名乔达摩·悉达多
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释迦牟尼佛顶骨舍利从崇光塔请出 24名僧人守护

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24日下午,在南京名刹栖霞寺内,一场名为“佛顶骨舍利移驾法会”的庄严佛事在此举行。这场移驾法会是此次南京释迦牟尼佛顶骨舍利首次出巡港澳供奉的首个重要节点:佛顶骨舍利将从被供奉的栖霞寺...
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介绍

释迦牟尼,原名乔达摩·悉达多,佛教的创始人,公元前五百余年释迦牟尼出生于北印度迦毗罗卫国,是国主净饭王的太子。成道后,被世人尊称为“释迦牟尼”,意思为“释迦族的贤哲”。
释迦牟尼出生
释迦牟尼原名乔达摩·悉达多,是古印度迦毗罗卫国(今尼泊尔)的太子。其父是国王净饭王,其母摩耶夫人,来自邻近的拘利国,是天臂城主善觉王的胞妹。摩耶夫人在嫁给净饭王后,多年并未生育。有一天夜里,她梦到有一头六牙白象王飞入自己的体内,至此才有身孕。印度有女人回娘家生孩子的传统,因此,快要到分娩时,摩耶夫人在宫人的陪伴下,启程赶往天臂城。途径蓝毗尼园时,摩耶夫人下车休息,在她伸手去摘一支无忧树枝时,从其右肋生下了悉达多太子。可是,在悉达多出生后七天,摩耶夫人就去世了,净饭王又娶了摩耶夫人的妹妹波阁波提,是她把悉达多抚养成人。
释迦牟尼成长
悉达多太子天资聪慧,长到12岁时,就已经掌握了当时印度最高的学问,16岁时,娶了表妹耶输陀罗为妻。他的生活可谓幸福美满,可后来发生的一件事改变了他的一生,起因是他有一次驾车出城游玩。他在驾车经过东、南、西三座城门时,分别见到了人类老、病、死的三种状态,于是认识到所有人都有不可逃避的痛苦。后来当他在经过北门,看到一位游行的苦行僧时,决定奉行这一古老的修行方法,以摆脱命运的枷锁。就在他29岁那年的一天晚上,他丢下妻子和家庭,独自出宫修苦行去了。
释迦牟尼出家
悉达多出宫之后,先是过着挨家挨户乞食的生活。然后他就去寻访一位叫做卡拉玛的圣者,这是一位住在拉加格里哈山的隐士。在悉达多找到圣者卡拉玛后,跟随其学习透过呼吸和瑜伽得到四禅八定的方法。他很快就学会了这些方法,但还是没能从困惑中解脱出来,因为他没能找到诸般痛苦产生的原因以及消灭痛苦的方法。于是,悉达多离开了卡拉玛。后来,他又师从另一位隐者拉马普特拉学习“非想非非想定”,可这也没能解除他心中的疑团。这时,悉达多决定自己寻找答案。
释迦牟尼成佛
一天,悉达多正在雪山打坐,有五位苦行者很尊敬他的成就而愿意跟随他。从此,他们一起流浪,住在森林里靠乞食为生。经过六年这样的苦修,悉达多的身体变得骨瘦如柴,已经到了崩溃的边缘,可他还是没有找到真正解脱的方法。这时悉达多悟到,自己的苦行是没有意义的。于是,他到尼连禅河中洗去了身上沉积六年的尘垢,随后接受了河边牧羊女供养的糜乳,恢复了体力。跟随他的五个人以为他放弃了,便都离他而去。无奈中的悉达多独自一人来到菩提迦耶的一棵毕波罗树下,盘腿而坐,总结过去的经验,并重新调整思维方法。经过数天苦思,终于获得了彻底的觉悟,立身成佛,号称释迦牟尼,那年他只有35岁。
释迦牟尼建立佛教
释迦牟尼成佛后,立刻去找离他而去的那五个人。在波罗奈城的鹿野苑,释迦牟尼找到了他们,并立刻向他们传授自己悟到的佛法。这五人听到教说后,心悦诚服,便都皈依了释迦牟尼,成为佛陀最初的弟子,被称为“五比丘”。这五人便是世间最早的比丘。比丘的意思就是出家的男人。从那时起,佛教已经具备了组成宗教团体的三个要素:领袖、理论、参加人员。释迦牟尼是领袖,佛法是理论,五比丘是参加人员,佛教管这三个因素叫做“佛、法、僧”三宝。因此,释迦牟尼鹿野苑初转法轮(传佛法)这件事就被定义为佛教成立的标志。
释迦牟尼涅槃
在度化了五比丘之后,释迦牟尼便率领他们继续到处讲说佛法,增加比丘人数,扩大僧团规模。45年以后,释迦牟尼率领徒众前往拘尸那城游化时,入涅槃于拘尸那城帕瓦村旁的小树林里,终年80岁。
历史渊源
随着佛教东传,佛教造像也随之汉化。此尊释迦牟尼佛有一张汉人的脸,其身形敦厚浑圆,雕刻线条粗犷大气,为明式佛陀造像。
种类
释迦牟尼佛的造像种类繁多,就刻画不同年龄阶段的释迦来看,此件是释迦壮年时期的写照,成熟的男性面孔,厚实的肩膀以及饱满结实的手臂。早期释迦牟尼佛像则头形略小,脸部五官秀丽脱俗,肩膀略窄单薄。
特点
佛陀结跏趺坐,手持禅定印。佛陀略为俯首,眼神下视,面容与手臂的肌肉线条显示张力,将释迦进入深度禅定前的瞬间表情捕捉得相当入微,与众多入定唯美的佛陀风格大异其趣。此尊佛像独特之处,是佛陀的眼睑沿的中央各有一颗芝麻大小的痣,痣虽微小,微妙的是所产生的视觉震撼却相对深刻。
明代佛教造像充满人性的一面,与中国佛教走向世俗化、社会化有很大的关系。
 

释迦牟尼佛像

北魏太和(477-499年) 铜镀金 高33厘米此像跏趺端坐,头部高昂,饰涡旋状发型,顶有高肉髻,面颊丰腴,大眼细长,神态威严。身着袒右肩袈裟,右肩披偏衫,胸前衣领上饰折带纹,衣纹厚重写实。右手举于身侧结施无畏印,左手置左膝。四足座床浑朴稳重,正前方和两个侧面刻有飞鸟、蔓叶、胡人装束供养人、卷云等纹饰,座后刻有“大代”等铭文。整体风格具有印度犍陀罗艺术遗风,但其圆大结实的脸庞、高挺健硕的胸脯、宽厚结实的肩膀和剽悍坚毅的神态表情,则更多地体现了当时北方鲜卑民族的人体特征和精神风貌。

English Introduction

Shakya Muni, formerly known as Gautama Siddhartha, the founder of Buddhism, BC five hundred years Shakya Muni was born in North India, adjacent to Luo Weiguo, the prince is in main Suddhodana. Into the road, was the world known as "Shakya Muni", meaning "Shakya sage".
Shakya Muni was born
Shakya Muni, formerly known as Gautama Siddhartha, is the ancient India Jia PI (now Nepal) Prince Luo Weiguo. Is the son of King Suddhodana, his mother mayadevi, from neighbouring in quo, is the day feel good King's sister's arm. Maya to marry in the net for many years did not have rice queen. One night, she dreamed of a head six white teeth Wang Fei into his body, thus be pregnant. India women back home children tradition, therefore, is coming to birth, Maya in palace of the company, set out to the boom days of the city. Way to Lumbini Park, mayadevi get off to rest, in her hand pick a carefree branch, from the right side gave birth to Prince Siddartha. However, in the seven days after Siddartha was born, Maya died, King Suddhodana married sister Maya wave Ge PLN, she put up Siddartha.
Shakya Muni growth
Prince Siddartha was gifted, and by the time he was 12, he had mastered the highest knowledge of India at that time, and at the age of 16 he married his cousin, Indra, who was his wife. His life was a happy one, but then something happened that changed his life because he had to drive out of town. He drove through the East, South, West three gates, respectively, to see the human old, sick, dead of the three states, and realized that all people have inescapable pain. Later when he saw a parade through the north gate, ascetic, decided to pursue this ancient practice, in order to get rid of the shackles of fate. When he was 29 years old, one night, he left his wife and family, alone out of the palace to practice asceticism.
Shakya Muni monk
After Siddartha out of the palace, first lived a life of begging from door to door. Then he went to look for a called Kalama Holy One, this is a live Lajiageli Hassan hermit. Find the Holy One in Kalama Siddartha, following the four learning methods eight get through breathing meditation and yoga. He soon learns these methods, but still could not escape from the confusion, because he can't find all sorts of pain produced and method to eliminate pain. So, Siddartha left the kalama. Later, he was under the tutelage of another hermit Rama putla learning "to" but it also failed to relieve his heart of the mystery. At this time, Siddartha decided to find their own answers.
Shakya Muni Buddha
One day, Siddartha is the snow capped mountains five ascetic meditation, respected his achievements and are willing to follow him. Since then, they together, live in the forest by begging for a living. After six years of this penance, Siddartha's body became as thin as a threadpaper, is on the verge of collapse, but he still did not find the real. When Siddartha realized that his penance is meaningless. So, he went to the falgu River to wash away the body deposited six years of dust, then received the support of the shepherdess lacteals restored. The five men who followed him thought he had given up and left him. But Siddartha alone came to a tree under the bodhi tree Biboluo Gaya, sitting cross legged, summing up the past experience, and re adjust the way of thinking. After several days of hard, finally got a thorough awareness, conduct a Buddha, known as Shakya Muni, he was only 35 years old.
Shakya Muni established Buddhism
Shakya Muni Buddha, the five men immediately went away from him. In Varanasi city of Sarnath, Shakya Muni found them, and immediately talk to them about their understanding to the dharma. The five heard taught to say, they are convinced to become the first disciple Shakya Muni, the Buddha, known as the "five monks". The five is the earliest monk world. The monk is a monk meant man. Since then, Buddhism has three elements that constitute a religious group: leaders, theory, participants. Shakya Muni is the leader, Buddhism is the theory of the five monks in personnel, the three factors of Buddhism tube called "Buddha, Dharma and Sangha Sambo". Therefore, Shakya Muni Sarnath dharma (Dharma) it is defined as a symbol of Buddhism was established.
Shakya Muni Nirvana
After the degree of five monks, Shakya Muni will continue to lead them everywhere to speak the Dharma, increase the number of monks, to expand the scale of the sangha. 45 years later, Shakya Muni led his followers to Kushinagar city tour, Nirvana in kushinagara Pawacun near the woods, at the age of 80.
historical origin
With the spread of Buddhism, Buddhist statues also finished. The statue of Shakya Muni Buddha has a Chinese face, its shape and rounded, carved rough lines for Ming Dynasty Buddha statues atmosphere.
type
Shakya Muni Buddha statues of various kinds, it depicts the different age stages of Sakyamuni, the Buddha is a prime portrayal of mature male faces, thick shoulders and arms full of strong. Early Shakya Muni Buddha head slightly, facial beauty and refined, slightly narrow thin shoulders.
Characteristic

The Buddha knot Jia fuzuo, handheld meditation. The Buddha is slightly bowed, eyes, face and arm muscles show tension, the Buddha into the depth of meditation moments before the facial capture quite nuanced, and many beautiful meditation Buddha style greatly different. This unique statue of Buddha, the Buddha's eyelids along the central each have a sesame size of the mole, although the mole is small, subtle is the visual shock is relatively deep.
One side of the Ming Dynasty Buddhist statues full of humanity, and Chinese Buddhism to a great relationship of secularization and socialization.
Wei Tai (477-499) copper plated 33 cm high like this in sitting, head ornaments, spiral hair, top with high meat bun, cheeks, eyes, slender, dignified. A bare right shoulder robe draped right shoulder, chest partial T-shirt, collar break lines, thick realistic drapery. On the right hand side with fearless India, left the left knee. A seat bed and steady, front and two sides engraved with the birds, leaves, Hu costume donors, cirrus clouds such as decoration, seat inscribed with "generation" and other inscriptions. The overall style is India Gandhara art legacy, but the big round face strong, high Tingjian Shuo chest, strong shoulders and generous demeanor and resolute expression, more reflected the northern Xianbei ethnic characteristics of the human body and spirit.

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