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中国古代秘戏绘画全集带你了解古代春宵秘戏图

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明清时的很多春宫画都是用作嫁妆的一部分,仅仅按照现在的标准视之为淫秽作品是不恰当的。

既然谈到色情文艺,就不能不谈谈春宫图了。毕竟和文学相比,图画更直观更直接,也更能够刺激感官。那么为什么在宋代以前,各种历史资料上关于春宫画的信息很少呢?这里面大致有如下几个因素。

一是春宫图总是不公开的,除非是一些很荒淫的帝王贵族,为了追求极端的刺激,才会去制作。

二是文字的传播总是比图画容易一些,毕竟春宫画不是什么人都能画的,需要技巧娴熟的画师。

三是即便有画师愿意画,中国到了东汉才出现纸张,更要到五代才发明雕版印刷术,这点也影响了春宫图的传播。

按照明代文人沈德符《敝帚斋余谈》上的说法:

春画之起,当始于汉广川王画男女交接状于屋,召诸父姐妹饮,令仰视画。及齐后废帝于潘妃诸阁壁,图男女私亵之状。……至隋炀帝乌铜屏,白昼与宫人戏,影俱入其中。唐高宗“镜殿”成,刘仁轨惊下殿,谓一时乃有数天子。……至武后时,遂用(镜殿)以宣淫。杨铁崖诗云:“镜殿青春秘戏多,玉肌相照影相摩。六郎酣战明空笑,队队鸳鸯浴饰波。”……而秘戏之能事尽矣。后之画者,大抵不出汉广川齐东昏之模范,唯古墓砖石中原此等状,间有及男色者,差可异耳。

可见这些春宫画的载体要么是墙壁,要么是屏风,要么是镜子,都不具备便携性、移动性,自然传播的效能也就有限了。

如果非要追溯一下画在纸上的春宫图,那么东汉张衡的《同声歌》大致透露出一些信息来。张衡是个科学家,发明过地动仪,又是个文学家,写过《二京赋》、《归田赋》。

 

《同声歌》全诗是这样的——

 

邂逅承际会,得充君后房。情好新交接,恐栗若探汤。

 

不才勉自竭,贱妾职所当。绸缪主中馈,奉礼助蒸尝。

 

思为莞席,在下蔽匡床。愿为罗衾帱,在上卫风霜。

 

洒扫清枕席,芬以狄香。重户纳金扃,高下华灯光。

 

衣解巾粉御,列图陈枕张。素女为我师,仪态盈万方。

 

众夫所希见,天老教轩皇。乐莫斯夜乐,没齿焉可忘。

 

根据诗歌的内容,不难推想,这是一个女人诉说自己花烛之夜的经历和感受。值得注意的是以下三句——“衣解巾粉御,列图陈枕张。素女为我师,仪态盈万方。众夫所希见,天老教轩皇。”

 

这个“列图”到底是列的什么图呢?不好说,虽然一直以来就有人怀疑是“列秘戏图也”,但是到底没有像样的资料支撑。好在今天我们能看到公元984年日本人丹波康赖收集中国隋唐以前医学典籍所撰成的《医心方》,上面收录的《素女经》中,描述有素女向黄帝讲述了至少二十四种不同的性交姿势和体位。由此可见张衡笔下的女子,在洞房之际,和夫君一同观览的正是春宫图。

 

这位兼具科学家之观察力和文学家之感性的天才留意到春宫图的存在,为我们留下了第一手资料。作为印证,他还在自己的另一篇赋《七辩》中,留下这样一段句子——“假明兰灯,指图观列,蝉绵宜愧,夭绍纡折,此女色之丽也。”

从《同声歌》可以看出,在汉时有可能以春宫图给新娘做嫁妆,以指导夫妻性生活,所以后世也把春宫图称为“女儿图”。我们在这里不妨看一下《聊斋》里头的小故事——

有一个叫郎玉柱的书痴,嗜书如命,昼夜研读,无间寒暑。结果到了三十多岁还没有老婆。他总是说:“‘书中自有颜如玉’,我何忧无美妻乎?”果然有一天,从书中出来一个绝世美女,真的就叫颜如玉。两人枕席间亲爱备至,郎玉柱却不懂得如何性交,以至于郁闷自己为什么没有孩子,颜如玉笑道:“君日读书,妾固谓无益。今即夫妇一章,尚未了悟,枕席二字有工夫。”

这里我们再看另外一个例子,就是清代李渔所写的《肉蒲团》,在书中,未央生因为妻子玉香从小受到正统的教育而在房事上表现得极为冷淡,因此决定借助春宫画——未央生见她没有一毫生动之趣,甚以为苦,我今只得用些淘养的工夫,变化她出来。明日就书画铺子中,买一幅绝巧的春宫册子,是学士赵子昂的手笔,共有三十六幅,取唐诗上三十六宫都是春的意思,拿回去,典与玉香小姐一同翻阅,可见男女交媾这些套数,不是我创造出来,古之人先有行之者,现有程文墨卷在此,取来证验。

玉香初次接触春宫画册,马上面红耳赤,立刻要让丫环拿去烧了。后经未央生一再解释说明,玉香再次观看起来——玉香看到此处,不觉骚兴大发,未央生又经过一页,正要指与她看,玉香就把册子一推,立起身来道,什么好书,看得人不自在起来,你自己看,我要去睡了。

可见,性交这种事情,有些人可能比较迟钝,有赖于性教育。古代不像现在这样可以在网上获得性教育片子,所以春宫图在这方面发挥的功用不可忽视,不然就不能解释为什么明清时代留下来好多春宫画,都是用作嫁妆的一部分了。仅仅按照现在的标准把古代的春宫图视为淫秽作品是不恰当的。

到了唐代呢,流行的房中术的图书中很多就配上各种各样的性交姿势的插图,如《大乐赋》就提到了插图本的《素女经》。不过这些图片经过战乱和漫长的岁月,一张也没有留下来。不过我们还是能通过一些后世文人笔记,找到唐代春宫画的蛛丝马迹。

晚明的大画家和大收藏家张丑,一次偶然在太原王氏大姓之家中,见到了唐代著名画师周昉的《春宵秘戏图》,这张图失传已久,此时重现人间,自然让他喜出望外,欣喜欲狂,当即以重金购得,并在自己所著的《清河书画舫》写下跋记

乃周景元所画,鸥波亭主(元名画家赵孟,擅长春宫画)所藏。或云天后,或云太真妃(杨贵妃),疑不能明也。传闻,画画妇女,多为丰肌秀骨,不作纤纤娉婷之形。今图中所貌,目波澄鲜,眉妩连卷,朱唇皓齿,修耳悬鼻,辅靥颐颔,位置均适。且肌理腻洁,筑脂刻玉,阴沟渥丹,火齐欲吐,抑何态浓意远也!及考装束服饰,男子则远游冠、丝革鞋,而具帝王之相。女妇则望仙髻、绫波袜,而备后妃之容。姬侍则翠翘束带,压腰方履,而有宫禁气象!种种点缀,沉著古雅,非唐世莫有也!

夫秘戏之称,不知始于何代。自太史公撰列传,周仁以得幸景帝入卧内,于后宫秘戏而仁常在旁。杜子美制宫词,亦有“宫中行乐秘,料得少人知”之句,则秘戏名目其来已久,而非始于近世耳。

按前世之图秘戏也,例写男女二人相偎倚作私亵之状止矣,然有不露阴道者,如景元创立新图,以一男御一女,两小鬟扶持之;一侍姬当前,力抵御女之坐具;而又一侍姬尾其后,手推男背以就之。五女一男嬲戏不休,是诚古来图画所未有者耶。

这个跋记可以说透露的信息是多重的。我们先来了解一下唐代大画家周昉,他是处于盛唐、中唐时期长安最著名的宗教、人物画家。初学张萱,后自创风格,善画浓丽丰肥的仕女,又极能写真,传说郭子仪的女婿赵纵请周昉与韩幹为其各画一肖像,并挂于室,郭的女儿观后答称:周昉画出了赵郎的“性情笑言之姿”。而他的佛教造像,如“水月观音”等在当时即被奉为样板,曾称“周家样”。

他极喜爱画女人,画她们弹琴、调琴,托腮、静思,千姿百态,栩栩如生。他的仕女图,“画子女为古今之冠”(唐.朱景玄《唐朝名画录》),以至于晚唐的仕女画家们几乎都处于墨守“周家样”的阶段,可以说在晚唐的仕女画坛上,他是技压群雄。

这样一位绘画大师不以画春宫图为耻,可见当时的风气了。更值得注意的是,周昉的春宫画在继承中有发展,由单纯的一对男女性交发展到五女一男的群交,更是题材上的一大跃进。

 

----------Introduction in English----------

 

This genius with both the observation of scientists and the sensibility of writers noticed the existence of the Spring Palace Map and left us first-hand information. As a proof, he also left a sentence in his other Fu "Seven Debates": "False blue lanterns, refer to the pictures, cicadas should be ashamed of, the death of Shao, the beauty of this woman."

 

From the "Chorus", we can see that in the Han Dynasty, it was possible to make a dowry for the bride with a picture of the Spring Palace to guide the couple's sexual life, so later generations also referred to the picture of the Spring Palace as "the picture of the daughter". Let's take a look at the story in Liaozhai.——

 

There was a bookworm named Lang Yuzhu, who was fond of books and studied them day and night without any heat or cold. As a result, there was no wife in her thirties. He always said, "The book has its own beauty like jade." Why do I worry about having a beautiful wife? Sure enough, one day, from the book out of a beautiful woman, really called Yan Ruyu. Between the two pillows, Lang Yuzhu was so fond of love that he did not know how to have sex that he was so depressed that he had no children. Yan Ruyu laughed and said, "It is useless for a concubine to read on a gentleman's day." This is the couple's chapter, not yet understood, the word "pillow mat" has time.

 

Here's another example: Pork Pu Tuan written by Li Yu in the Qing Dynasty. In the book, Wei Yangsheng was extremely cold in housing because his wife Yuxiang received orthodox education from childhood, so he decided to resort to the Spring Palace Painting - Weiyang Sheng didn't have any vivid interest in her and felt very bitter. Now I have to use some of it. Tao Yang's efforts, change her out. Tomorrow in the painting and calligraphy shop, I will buy an ingenious brochure of the Spring Palace, which is written by Zhao Ziang, a Bachelor of arts. There are thirty-six pieces. The thirty-six palaces in Tang poems are the meaning of spring. Take them back and read them together with Miss Yuxiang. It can be seen that these sets of intercourse between men and women are not created by me. Ancient people have traveled first, and Cheng Wen is available. Here's the ink roll for proof.

 

When Yuxiang first contacted the Spring Palace picture album, she immediately blushed and let the maid take it and burn it. After repeated explanations by Weiyangsheng, Yuxiang watched again - Yuxiang saw here, unconsciously thriving, Weiyangsheng passed another page, just to point to her, Yuxiang pushed the pamphlet, stood up and said, what good books can make people uncomfortable, you read, I want to go to sleep.

 

It can be seen that sexual intercourse, some people may be relatively slow, depending on sex education. In ancient times, unlike today's online sex education movies, the Spring Palace Pictures play an important role in this respect. Otherwise, it can not explain why many Spring Palace Pictures left in the Ming and Qing Dynasties were used as part of the dowry. It is inappropriate to regard ancient Spring Palace maps as obscene works only according to current standards.

 

In the Tang Dynasty, many popular books of room art were accompanied by illustrations of various sexual positions, such as Dale Fu, which mentioned the illustration book Su Nv Jing. But none of these pictures survived the war and the long years. However, we can still find traces of the Spring Palace paintings in the Tang Dynasty through the notes of some later literati.

 

Zhang Chou, a great painter and collector in the late Ming Dynasty, accidentally met Zhou Fang, a famous painter of the Tang Dynasty, in his family with the surname of Wang in Taiyuan. This picture has been lost for a long time. At this time, when he reappeared in the world, he was naturally overjoyed and overjoyed. He immediately bought it with heavy gold and wrote Qinghe Shuhu Painting Fang. 》 Write down a postscript

 

It was painted by Zhou Jingyuan and by Gulboting Master (Yuan Ming painter Zhao Meng, good at Changchun Palace painting). Or after the clouds, or the clouds too true imperial concubine (Yang Guifei), doubtful also. Rumor has it that most of the women who draw pictures are full of muscles and bones, not in the shape of slender and graceful. In this picture, the eyes are clear, the eyebrows are charming, the teeth are bright, the ears and noses are trimmed, and the adjuncts are in good position. And the texture is greasy and clean, build fat and carve jade, sewer Ottan, fire is ready to vomit, or what kind of strong meaning is far away! As for clothes and clothing, men travel far away in crowns and silk shoes, and have the appearance of emperors. The woman looks forward to fairy buns and ripple stockings, while reserving the concubine's face. Ji Shi wears Cuiqiao girdles, pressing his waist and walking side by side, while there is a forbidden weather! All kinds of ornaments, calm and elegant, not Tang Dynasty!

 

I don't know where the name of secret opera began. From Tai Shigong's biography, Zhou Ren was fortunate that King Jingdi was in bed, and Ren was always there in the back court secret opera. Du Zimei's Palace Ci also has the phrase "Happy Secret in the Palace, which is expected to be known by few people". The name of the secret opera has a long history, not from the ears of modern times.

 

According to the pictures of previous generations, it is only possible to write examples of men and women snuggling against each other as private obscenities. However, there are those who do not reveal their vagina, such as Jingyuan, who created a new picture, supported by a man and a woman, supported by two young servant girls; a servant-in-law who is currently trying to resist the seat of a woman; and a servant-in-law who is behind her tail, pushes the man behind her back. Five women and one man play endlessly, which is unprecedented in Chenggulai's paintings.

 

This postscript can be said to reveal multiple information. Let's first learn about Zhou Fang, the great painter of the Tang Dynasty. He was the most famous religious and figure painter in Chang'an in the flourishing and middle Tang Dynasty. After learning Zhang Xuan, he created his own style, painted rich and beautiful ladies, and was very good at portrayal. Legend has it that Zhao Zheng, Guo Ziyi's son-in-law, asked Zhou Fang and Han Gan to draw a portrait for each of them and hang them in the room. Guo's daughter said after viewing, Zhou Fang painted Zhao Lang's "posture of laughing at temperament". His Buddhist statues, such as "Shuiyue Guanyin", were taken as models at that time, and were once called "Zhou Jia-zheng".

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白雪石
张仲亭
孙见光
贺旭
孙锐
陈继荣
龚玉
王子武
迈尔斯.福斯特Myles Birket Foster
张隆基
陆阳春
林先动
宋玉
李正平
樊萍
张大墨
宫廷油画
张永山
让·安托万·乌东Jean-Antoine Houdon
弗朗兹.马克Franz Marc
陆探微
黄涛
赵无极
张正刚
伊格纳西奥Ignacio Pinazo Camarlench
荆曰政
陶缀
顾人敏
宋辛程
刘相训
刘佳
祝东平
贺小龙