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地藏菩萨

 地藏菩萨(梵语:Ksitigarbha),因其“安忍不动,犹如大地,静虑深密,犹如秘藏”,所以得名。佛典载,地藏菩萨在过去世中,曾经几度救出自己在地狱受苦的母亲;并在久远劫以来就不断发愿要救度一切罪苦众生尤其是地狱众生。所以这位菩萨同时以“大孝”和“大愿”的德业被佛教广为弘传。也因此被普遍尊称为“大愿地藏王菩萨”,并且成为了汉传佛教的四大菩萨之一。唐朝来华求法的地藏比丘被认为是地藏菩萨的化身。这位出身新罗王族的僧人所在的安徽九华山也被视为地藏菩萨的应化道场,并因此成为了中国佛教四大名山之一,千百年来香火鼎盛。

  • 中文名地藏菩萨
  • 外文名Ksitigarbha
  • 别名地藏王菩萨
名称由来

菩萨因何名为地藏?据《三宝感应要略录》载:如来昔在灵鹫山时,地藏菩萨游行诸国,教化众生,到毗富罗山下,至乔提长者家。其长者家内,被鬼夺其精气,其家五百人,并皆闷绝,不省人事,经于旬日。地藏菩萨见此情景,即作是念:“实可苦哉,实可痛哉;世间有如是等不可说事。我今愍此众生,而作救济。”说此语已,便即腾身,往灵鹫山,即白佛言:“世尊!我见乔提长者家五百馀人,皆被恶鬼夺其精气,闷绝在地,已经数日。我见是事已,生怜愍心,生爱护心,唯愿世尊,许我设此救济之法。令诸恶鬼降伏于人,令诸行者随意驱使,复令长者还得如故。”尔时如来,从顶上毫,放光万寻,照地藏身。
与会大众各相谓曰:“今日如来,放光照地藏身,此菩萨必成大法,教化众生。”时地藏菩萨白佛言“我今有一神咒,能去邪心,复驱使诸恶鬼等。我念过去无量无边久远有佛,号烧光王。其佛灭后,于像法中,我住凡夫地。有一仙人,在俱特罗山,善行道术。我见众生被诸鬼所恼,如彼长者家无异。我于尔时作是誓愿:遇善知识,求学降伏之法。即往俱特罗山,语彼仙人。仙人心生欢喜,于三日内,授我预知万理,消除罪恶。又将一切恶鬼,招集我所,依师法教,调伏其心,令发道心。于须臾间,一切地狱受苦众生,各乘莲花,诸苦停息。尔时仙人,见我得如是神力,与我授记,而作是言:汝于无量无边世,佛与授记,名曰地藏。于五浊世中,人天地狱,常当化身,救度众生,令离灾难,今见长者,如本无异。我今往彼家,特救护之。”世尊听许,菩萨往化,五百馀人,一时复活。

塑化形象

在中国佛教寺院中,地藏菩萨形象很有特点,一般菩萨现头戴宝冠、身披天衣、璎珞装饰的天人相。而地藏菩萨则多现光头或是头戴毗卢冠、身披袈裟的出家僧人之相。他一手持锡杖,一手持莲花,或是手持幡幢、宝珠等。据《地藏菩萨仪轨》、《地藏菩萨十轮经》等记,由于地藏菩萨在无佛的“五浊恶世”(即劫浊、见浊、烦恼浊、众生浊、命浊)中济渡众生,为了让众生能深信因果,归依三宝,所以显示出家僧人相。地藏菩萨像还常有以一头形似狮子的狗(今天人们所熟知的西藏名犬“藏獒”,头大毛长,形似金狮)为坐骑的,其名号曰:“谛听”或“善听”。曾资助过金乔觉的闵姓山主及其儿子,后来皆随金乔觉出家,九华山成了地藏道场后,他二人也被塑成了地藏菩萨的胁侍。
地藏菩萨因立下要度尽六道中生死流转众生的大愿,故而常现身于人、天、地狱等六道之中,而有六地藏之称,其名号与形象如下:
(一)檀陀地藏,“檀陀”是一种人头幢,其形象为左手持人头幢,右手结甘露印,专门救助地狱道众生。
(二)宝珠地藏,左手持宝珠,右手结甘露印,专门救度饿鬼道。(三)宝印地藏,左手持锡杖,右手结如意宝印,专门济度畜生道。
(四)持地地藏,左手持金刚幢,右手结施无畏印,专门济度阿修罗道。
(五)除盖障地藏,左手持锡杖,右手结与愿印,为人除掉八苦之盖障,专门济度人道。所谓八苦即生苦、老苦、病苦、死苦、怨憎会苦、爱别离苦、求不得苦、五阴盛苦,为苦谛所摄。
(六)日光地藏,左手持如意珠,右手结说法印,照天人之五衰(天人将死时现五种衰相)而除其苦恼,专门济度天道。
按佛教说法,地藏菩萨受释迦牟尼佛的托咐,在释迦寂灭后未来佛弥勒降生前这一段无佛世界里,担当起教化六道众生的重任,其地位相当于“代理佛”。《地藏本愿经》又说,释迦佛召地藏大士,令其永为幽明教主,使世人有亲者,皆得极本荐亲,共登极乐世界,地藏受此重托,遂在佛前立下宏大誓愿:“为是罪苦六道众生广设方便,尽令解脱,而我自身方成佛道。”(《地藏经·忉利天宫神通品第一》) 因此地藏又被称为“大愿地藏”,以与观音的“大悲”、文殊的“大智”、普贤的“大行”相呼应。

人物特点

地藏菩萨有两个显着特点:(一)常居秽土。“我今学世尊,发如是大愿,当于此秽土,得无上菩提”(见《十轮经》卷一)。地藏菩萨精神的伟大在于,越是浊恶世界越要去,越是恶业深重众生越要去度化,释迦佛是在秽土成佛的,地藏菩萨发愿学习释迦佛在秽土成佛的高风,可见他是释迦精神的真正继承者。因此释迦佛将灭度后在秽土教化众生的艰巨任务,交给地藏菩萨,自然是十分放心的。(二)现出家相:在诸菩萨中,地藏菩萨与众不同的是现出家相。不像其他菩萨,基本上都是现在家相的。如观音菩萨,现白衣大士,或天人相。文殊菩萨现童子相。普贤菩萨也现在家相。所以现在一般寺庙菩萨的塑像或画像,文殊、普贤、观世音、大势至等菩萨,都现头戴天冠,身披璎珞的天人相。唯独地藏菩萨现比丘像,据《地藏菩萨仪轨》,画地藏像,须作声闻形,身披袈裟,偏袒右肩,左手执莲花,右手施无畏,坐莲花台上。或有幢幡,左手持莲花,右手持宝珠。地藏菩萨为什么要现声闻形?这是由于他在秽土工作的条件决定的。秽土的众生,无明痴暗、多诸邪见。地藏菩萨为了令众生“尊敬三宝,深信因果”,故现出家相。《十轮经》说:出家的僧相,是秽土世界的清净幢相,可使大家见闻熏习,达到身心清净。为人们提出一条远离罪恶,解脱苦难的途径。

English Introduction

What is called Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva for? According to the "record" set: induction of Sambo Buddha was Rajagaha, Bodhisattva parade countries, educate the masses, to which the Fu Luo mountain, Joe to the home of the elderly. The home of the elderly, the demon takes its essence, the family of five hundred people, and are bored, the 10th to become unconscious. Jizo see this scene, which make read: "real bitter is really painful; there is not such thing. I pity this sentient beings, and relief." This is already said, Teng, to Rajagaha, is said to the Buddha: "buddha! I see Joe home of the elderly more than five hundred people, all by the devil took the essence, bored in, have a few days. I see things, students anukampa heart, students love heart, may the Buddha, I set the relief method of xu. Make the devil to make the yield, random walker driven, the elderly is still complex." The Buddha, from the top of it, shining million search, according to hide.
The Wei said: "today, the popular light Tathagata, according to hide, this Bodhisattva will become law, educate the masses." When Bodhisattva said to the Buddha "I have a mantra, to do the evil spirits, complex drives etc.. I read in the past without a long time there is a Buddha, burn the light king. The death of the Buddha, as in law, I live to ordinary people. There is a fairy, in all of Luoshan, good operation. I see all the ghosts was annoyed, as he is home of the elderly. I was in the affirmation: the case of good knowledge, to study the yield method. The club of Luoshan, their immortal language. The heart of joy, in three days, "I foresee Wan Li, eliminate evil. And all the evil spirits, I called, according to law, taming the mind, make hair heart. At the moment, all hell suffering sentient beings, all take the lotus, the bitter end. The immortal, see me like magic, and I Vyakarana, and as the word: you in the boundless world, Buddha and Vyakarana, called ksitigarbha. In five a day in hell, often when the incarnation, save all living creatures, so that from the disaster, today see elders, as this is. I'm going to this house." Buddha Bodhisattva to listen to Xu, and more than five hundred people, a resurrection.

In the China Buddhist temple, the Bodhisattva image is very characteristic, general Buddha is wearing a crown, wearing clothes and necklace decoration of heaven. But many are bald or Bodhisattva is wearing a crown, wearing robes of the Pilu monk. He is holding a Xizhang, holding a lotus, or holding banners, baozhu. According to the "rituals", "Bodhisattva Jizo ten round" records, because there is no Buddha Bodhisattva in the "five evil world" (i.e., rob turbidity, turbidity, see trouble turbidity, turbidity and turbidity of sentient life) in order to let sentient beings, sentient beings can believe in Buddhism, to show monk Sambo, so the monks are. The Jizo statue also often in a shape of a lion dog (today known as Tibet -- "Tibetan mastiff", head of Damao long, resembling a lion) as the horse, whose name said: "listen" or "good listening". Who funded the main Xingshan min and his son Jin Qiaojue, later with Jin Qiaojue monk, Mount Jiuhua became after two people hid in the dojo, he was also formed the Bodhisattva retinues.
Jizo set to six for all the way of life and death, all great vows, so often appeared in person, day and hell in six, and six in possession of said, its name and image:
(a) Tantric scriptures, "Tantric" is a kind of head, its image for the left hand holding the head, right hand dew India, dedicated to rescue beings in hell.
(two) the orb hidden, left hand holding the right hand knot dew pearl, India, specially delivered a hungry ghost. (three) BAOYING hid, left hand holding the right hand Xizhang, Mani India, special economic animals.
(four) to hide, left hand holding diamond blocks, right hand Shi fearless India, special economy of the asura.
(five) in addition to cover avoidance hid, left hand holding the right hand and let Xizhang, India, as people get rid of better cover avoidance, special economy of humanity. The so-called eight sufferings of that bitter, bitter old, pain, death, hatred, bitter bitter, not bitter, suffer from the separation of five Yin and bitter, were taken by the truth of suffering.
(six) the sun hid, left hand holding Ruyi beads, right hand saying India, as heaven five bad (and death now five signs) and in addition to its special economic distress, of heaven.
According to Buddhism, the Bodhisattva by Fu Shakya Muni Buddha, Sakyamuni Buddha died in the future of Maitreya before birth this period of Buddha in the world, bear the responsibility of educating six people, equivalent to the status of "agent buddha". "Possession of the wish by the" Sakyamuni Buddha said, it is called dizang mahasattvas, permanent jumby leader, make people have those are very recommended this pro, Deng Elysian Fields, hidden by this trust, then in front of the Buddha made great vows: "as zuiku beings in the six paths to establish more convenient, try to free, my own become a buddha." ("Tripitaka - trayastrimsa temple first" supernatural product) so hidden is also known as the "big wish Ksitigarbha", to "mercy", and the goddess of Manjusri, Samantabhadra "great wisdom" and "big" echoes.

Jizo has two salient features: (a) in the dirt. "I learn Buddha, made such great vows, when in the dirt," Bodhi "(see the" ten round "by volume). Great is the Bodhisattva spirit, the more evil to the world more, more is evil beings to more deep degree, Sakyamuni Buddha Buddha is in the dirt, the Bodhisattva vow to learn Buddha Buddha in high wind dirt, showing that he is really inheriting the spirit of buddha. Therefore, the arduous task in the dirt enlightened Shakyamuni Buddha will destroy the degree, to the Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva, nature is very assured. (two) the monk phase: where the Bodhisattva, Bodhisattva is out of the ordinary monks. Unlike other Bodhisattvas, they are basically home now. Such as Avalokiteshvara, is the goddess of mercy, or heaven. The boy is manjusri. Samantabhadra also now. So now the general temple of Buddha statues or pictures, Manjusri, Samantabhadra, Avalokitesvara and mahasthamaprapta Bodhisattva etc., are now wearing the crown head speed, a unity of man. But the monks like Bodhisattva, Bodhisattva according to "rituals", like painting hidden, silent to smell, wearing robes, favouring the right shoulder, left hand holding the right hand lotus, Shi Wuwei, sitting on the lotus taiwan. Or a pennant, left hand holding a lotus, the right hand holding the orb. Why is this Bodhisattva? This is because he decided to work in dirty conditions. The dirty creatures of ignorance, see the evil dark. Jizo in order to "respect all Sambo, believe in Buddhism", it is a phase. The "ten round" said a monk, is building the world clean dirt, so that we can achieve knowledge xunxi, pure in body and mind. For people to move away from evil, the way to escape suffering.

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